View of the Alkali Works, 1862
Image: View of Chance Brothers Alkali Works, Oldbury (1862). James Frederick Chance, A History of the Firm of Chance Brothers and Co. Glass and Alkali Manufacturers(London, Spotiswoode, Ballantyne and Co Ltd, 1919). The huge chimneys were typical of alkali works, they were built to release hydrochloric acid fumes which were produced during the manufacturing process into the upper atmosphere and diffuse their polluting effects. The attempt was not successful and led chemical manufacturers to develop means of condensing acid vapour before releasing fumes into the air.